Survey of antibiotic resistance (SOAR)

Program Objectives

GSK has been involved in antibiotic surveillance studies since 1992, when it ran The Alexander Project (1992-2001), GSK's first international surveillance study of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CA-RTIs). In 2002, GSK began the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) study.

SOAR focuses on the effectiveness of antibiotics in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, which are a major burden for healthcare systems. This includes pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.

SOAR tracks the effectiveness of the most commonly-used antibiotics (beta-lactams, cephalosporins, macrolides and fluoroquinolones), based on three different breakpoints, through a quantitative method for determining antibiotic susceptibility in areas where resistance data can be scarce and more is needed to understand the local trends and inform appropriate prescribing. Studies cover the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, Common Wealth of Independent States, Asia, China and Eastern Europe.

GSK proactively publishes this data and shares it with healthcare professionals and public health bodies to provide country specific resistance levels to inform prescribing and guideline development.

Antibiotic surveillance studies Antibiotic surveillance studies Copyright Photo credits GSK

What are the health needs and challenges?

GSK recognises that it is important to understand local resistance patterns in order to help encourage appropriate antibiotic usage and vaccination strategies and to minimise the development of further resistance. GSK is building surveillance data that tracks antibiotic resistance over time and geographies.

Description of partnership activities and how they address needs and challenges

In the next SOAR cycle, data is being collected from 2014-2016 in 16 centres, across 11 countries: Argentina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Philippines, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic, and the Ukraine. The results of this SOAR cycle are expected to be published in 2017.  

Additionally, SOAR 2015-2017 is running in 54 centres, across 31 countries: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Costa Rico, Trinidad & Tobago, Jamaica, Chile, Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Morocco, Tunisia, Lebanon, Kuwait, Botswana, Mauritius, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Ukraine, Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, the Philippines and Singapore. The results of this expanded programme are expected to be published in 2018.

Corresponding principle in the declaration

“We are committed to antibiotics only being used in patients who need them, we support continued education for clinical professionals on appropriate use, and we welcome the WHO Global Action Plan’s focus on improved stewardship.”

Read full Declaration by the Pharmaceutical, Biotechnology and Diagnostics Industries on Combating Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)

Partnership information

Company(ies) GlaxoSmithKline

Therapeutic Focus Infectious Diseases

Disease(s) Drug-Resistant Infections (AMR)

Program Type(s) Prevention Programs - Awareness & Outreach, Research & Development - Operations Research

Region(s) East Asia & Pacific, Europe & Central Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, Middle East & North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa

Number of Countries 118

Country(ies) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Hong-Kong, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, The Gambia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, West Bank and Gaza, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Start Date 2002

More information GSK Oxford Journals

Anticipated completion date Ongoing